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Bahrain's Crown Prince Salman bin Hamad al-Khalifa speaks at the opening ceremony of the 8th IISS Regional Security Summit, the Manama Dialogue, in Manama

Washington’s relations with Bahrain are under strain after royal comments at a regional strategy conference in the island’s capital. The incident, described by the Associated Press as a “diplomatic flap” and a “public slap against Washington,” reopens the debate about the progress of reforms as street violence continues between Shi’ite protesters and security forces deployed by the Sunni al-Khalifa royal family.

Over fifty people, including security personnel, have died in protests pressing for more political representation and other rights over the past two years. In February 2011, most Shiite members of parliament resigned, and subsequent by-elections reinforced the Sunni majority in the assembly despite the island’s majority Shi’ite population. Protests continue on an almost daily basis – an embarrassment to Washington given that the island hosts the headquarters of the U.S. Fifth Fleet, a key component in efforts to deter Iran.

U.S. diplomats at the conference, the annual Manama Dialogue, were surprised when Bahrain’s heir apparent – Crown Prince Salman bin Hamad al-Khalifa, previously seen as the royal family’s leading reformer – failed to mention the United States by name when listing allies that have provided critical support during the disturbances. He also spoke of countries that “selectively” criticize Bahrain’s leadership, without citing specific examples. While calling for dialogue, he also stated that Shi’ite religious leaders, whom he referred to as “ayatollahs,” should denounce violence more forcefully.

Salman’s tough words were echoed by Prince Abdulaziz bin Abdullah al-Saud, the son of the Saudi monarch and the kingdom’s deputy foreign minister. Apparently justifying last year’s Saudi military intervention in Bahrain, he warned that the Gulf states “cannot tolerate instability.”

“Going forward, two dangers threaten U.S.-Bahraini relations. The first is that Iran will attempt to further weaken the relationship; the second is that Washington has made seemingly little effort to repair it.” – Simon Henderson, The Washington Institute

US Deputy Secretary of State William Burns (L) and Senator John McCain are seen during the Manama Dialogue (International Institute of Strategic Studies) conference in Manama, Bahrain, December 8, 2012 (AP).

Meanwhile, Deputy Secretary of State William Burns, who led the U.S. delegation, emphasized “the urgent challenges of Iran’s reckless behavior.” On reform, he stated, “There is no one-size-fits-all approach to such transitions or reform processes; much will depend on local circumstances and the quality of local leadership.” However, he also noted that “Long-term stability, and enduring security, depend on the full participation of all citizens in political and economic life; the belief of all citizens that their peacefully expressed views are heard and respected; [and] the conviction of all citizens that they share a stake in their country’s future.” In the email text of the speech distributed by the State Department, the three mentions of the word “all” were each in bold type.

The exchange suggests that the gap in perceptions between Washington and Manama is as wide as ever. The United States sees political reform as compatible with maintaining the historical security relationship, while the royal family views Shi’ite leaders with suspicion, believing they are too sympathetic to Iran and determined to change the political status quo.

Riot police detain a Bahraini anti-government protester during clashes in Abu Saiba, Bahrain, December 3, 2012 (AP).

In addition, the conference organizers had hoped that Defense Secretary Leon Panetta would be a keynote speaker. Although CENTCOM commander Gen. James Mattis and Fifth Fleet commander Vice Admiral John Miller were listed as speakers, the defining statement on U.S. policy and the region was delivered by Burns, who was accompanied by Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy and Human Rights Michael Posner. In recent remarks Posner stated: “To create a climate where dialogue and reconciliation is possible, the [Bahrain] government needs to prosecute those officials responsible for the human rights violations that occurred in early 2011. It also should drop charges against all persons accused of offenses involving non-violent political expression and freedom of assembly.”

Going forward, two dangers threaten U.S.-Bahraini relations. The first is that Iran will attempt to further weaken the relationship; the second is that Washington has made seemingly little effort to repair it. In December 2011, for example, only a single, junior U.S. official attended the Bahrain National Day celebration in Washington. Despite the tension, U.S. representation at this year’s event – scheduled for Wednesday, December 12 – should be larger and more senior.

This post was originally published on ©2012 The Washington Institute for Near East Policy. Reprinted with permission.

The views expressed in this Insight are the author’s own and are not endorsed by Middle East Voices or Voice of America. If you’d like to share your opinion on this post, you may use our democratic commenting system below. If you are a Middle East expert or analyst associated with an established academic institution, think tank or non-governmental organization, we invite you to contribute your perspectives on events and issues about or relevant to the region. Please email us through our Contact page with a short proposal for an Insight post or send us a link to an existing post already published on your institutional blog.

Simon Henderson

Simon Henderson is Baker fellow at The Washington Institute and director of the Institute's Gulf and Energy Policy Program.


  1. Jalil Al Saaf

    December 15, 2012

    it is Over hundred people killed by security forces.

  2. احمد احمد

    December 14, 2012

    ابي من المفصولين من الداخليه يا سلمان لا يملك قوت يوم هل تعلم اروح المدرسه من غير مصروف علي اعمال وبحوث لم استطع عملها لعدم وجود قوت اليوم.

  3. Peaceforall1998

    December 12, 2012

    The Bahraini monarchy has long relied on foreigners not only as military and police forces, but also to shift the political balance in the island kingdom. The opposition in Bahrain, drawing primarily but not exclusively on support from the country’s majority of Shi’i Muslims, has accused the government of fast-tracking the citizenship of carefully selected foreigners in order to change the demographic makeup of the country. The “politically naturalized,” as they are called, are Sunni Muslims mainly from Bedouin tribes in Saudi Arabia, Syria, Yemen, Jordan, and Baluchistan. They are seen as having close ethnic and cultural links to the local rulers. Estimates of their numbers range from 50,000 to 200,000, constituting between one-tenth and one-third of the total number of citizens.

    The politically naturalized are mainly employed in the security and defense forces, increasing the perception that they have been brought in to contain the local population. The graphic videos surfacing of the recent attacks by security forces against protestors show actions that involved some foreign or politically naturalized individuals.

    This systematic use of foreign forces is a tradition that goes back decades. It was first used in the region by the British in the nineteenth century, when divisions composed of individuals from Baluchistan and the Indian sub-continent were brought in to help establish control over the Trucial coast. It limits the risk of identification with locals and of defection. Fears about loyalty are less of an issue, as long as the right material incentives are provided.

    • Anna

      December 13, 2012

      ‘Peace for all’? Ha


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